By Donald R. Hill
During this entire historical past, Donald Hill opens a window on medieval and classical engineering. The e-book specializes in on Greece, Rome and medieval Western Europe, but additionally contains fascinating info on center japanese technology.
Documenting over 1800 years, Donald Hill illustrates how classical and medieval engineers designed early irrigation platforms, dams, bridges, clocks and the way they harnessed the ability of either water and wind. operating mostly with out a quantified, medical foundation for his or her designs, those early engineers studied the houses of fabrics and how within which fluids and solids behaved in convinced stipulations. They then utilized this information to successfully clear up difficulties. This attention-grabbing learn records over 1800 years of early engineering.
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Parthenote-derived hESC lines have been generated through artificial fertilization of 2 Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine 19 Fig. 1 Generation of hESC lines from various embryonic sources. Generation of hESC lines undergo three stages. First, donor embryos are obtained after in vitro fertilization or by egg activation (parthenogenetic embryos) and allowed to develop in vitro. Second, pluripotent cells are isolated either from the inner cell mass (ICM) of pre-implantation blastocysts or from 4, 8, or 16-cell stage morulae.
These include xenobioticfree serum replacements such as knockout serum replacer (KSR; Invitrogen) or xenobiotic-free culture media such as HESGRO (Millipore) or TeSR (STEMCELL). Feeder-free culture systems are now being developed to reduce the risk of contamination with foreign agents when hESCs are cultured on animal feeder cell layers. Feeder-free and xenobiotic-free, defined culture media that consist of a combination of recombinant growth factors known to inhibit differentiation and maintain hESCs in the pluripotent state are now commercially available.
Strelchenko N, Verlinsky O, Kukharenko V, Verlinsky Y (2004) Morula-derived human embryonic stem cells. Reprod Biomed Online 9(6):623–629 10. Strelchenko N, Verlinsky Y (2006) Embryonic stem cells from morula. Methods Enzymol 418:93–108 11. Kim K, Ng K, Rugg-Gunn PJ, Shieh JH, Kirak O, Jaenisch R, Wakayama T, Moore MA, Pedersen RA, Daley GQ (2007) Recombination signatures distinguish embryonic stem cells derived by parthenogenesis and somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cell Stem Cell 1(3):346–352 12.
A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times by Donald R. Hill