By A. Bonnick, D. Newbold
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From the feed chamber the oil flows through a non-return valve (ball type) into the pressure chamber (A in Fig. 26). The load of the cylinder spring enables the plunger to press the rocker arm against the valve, eliminating any free play. Engines and lubrication 33 Fig. 25 (a) A typical OHV assembly, (b) Direct acting type, (c) Push rod valve operation As the cam lifts the follower the pressure in the pressure chamber rises, causing the nonreturn valve to close the port feed chamber. Since the oil cannot be compressed it forms a rigid connection between the tappet body, cylinder and plunger so that these parts rise together to open the valve.
There are three main types of lubrication systems in common use on internal combustion engines. These are: . . wet sump . dry sump . total loss . The object of the lubrication system is to feed oil to all the moving parts of the engine to reduce friction and wear and to dissipate heat. Modern oils also clean the engine by keeping the products of combustion, dirt, etc. in suspension. This makes it essential that oil and filters are changed in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions. It can be seen from this that the oil performs four important functions.
Solid skirt used in both CI and SI high speed engines, where heavy loadings may be placed on the piston; . Split skirt where small clearances are used to reduce piston slap when the engine is cold; . Slipper type which is used to reduce the weight of the piston by cutting away the bottom of the non-thrust sides of the piston skirt; at the same time it reduces the area in contact with the cylinder wall, and also allows for a reduction in the overall height of the engine as BDC is now closer to the crankshaft.
A Practical Approach to Motor Vehicle Engineering and Maint. by A. Bonnick, D. Newbold