By Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy
What precisely are phrases? Are they the issues that get indexed in dictionaries, or are they the elemental devices of sentence constitution? Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy explores the results of those diversified methods to phrases in English. He explains a number of the ways that phrases are on the topic of each other, and indicates how the heritage of the English language has affected notice constitution. subject matters comprise: phrases, sentences and dictionaries; a be aware and its components (roots and affixes); a notice and its kinds (inflection); a note and its family members (derivation); compound phrases; be aware constitution; productiveness; and the ancient resources of English notice formation.
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Extra info for An introduction to English morphology: words and their structure
Knife and knive-, path and path-, house and house-, in all of which a voiceless fricative consonant in the singular alternates with its voiced counterpart in the plural) are solid grounds for calling them allomorphs of one morpheme, as we saw in Chapter 3. 1, we clearly want to recognise wife and wives as expressing the singular and plural respectively of one lexeme . But does it follow that all the word forms of a lexeme must always share the same root morpheme? Does it ever happen that two word forms that behave grammatically like forms of one lexeme look so dissimilar that they seem to have no root morpheme in common (at least if ‘morpheme’ is given its more concrete sense)?
All these words contain a sufﬁx: perform-s, perform-ed, and perform-ance. However, the sufﬁxes -s and -ed are dependent on the grammatical context in a way that the sufﬁx -ance is not. In (1), the reason why the verb perform has an -s sufﬁx is that the subject of the verb (the noun phrase denoting the person doing the performing) is singular (this pianist), not plural (these pianists). ) It is easy for a native speaker to check that (4) and (5) ‘feel wrong’: (4) *This pianist perform in the local hall every week.
In many languages, the distinction that English expresses by word order in John loves Mary and Mary loves John is expressed by inﬂectional means on the words corresponding to Mary and John. In English, the same technique is used for one small closed class of lexemes, namely personal pronouns. If one replaces John and Mary with the appropriate pronouns in these two examples, the outcome is as in (26) and (27): (26) He loves her. (27) She loves him. He and him are sometimes said to contrast in case, he belonging to the nominative case and him belonging to the accusative case.
An introduction to English morphology: words and their structure by Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy